WRITE ( Output formatting options ) is a keyword used in SAP ABAP programming.This tutorial covers its introduction & syntax details.

WRITE – Output formatting options

Options

… NO-ZERO

… NO-SIGN

… DD/MM/YY

… MM/DD/YY

… DD/MM/YYYY

… MM/DD/YYYY

… DDMMYY

… MMDDYY

… YYMMDD

… CURRENCY w

… DECIMALS d

… ROUND r

… UNIT u

… EXPONENT e

… USING EDIT MASK mask

… USING NO EDIT MASK

… UNDER g (only with WRITE )

… NO-GAP (only with WRITE )

… LEFT-JUSTIFIED

… CENTERED

… RIGHT-JUSTIFIED

Note

The formatting options UNDER g and NO-GAP are intended only output to lists and therefore cannot be used with WRITE … TO .

Option

… NO-ZERO

Effect

If the contents of f are equal to zero, only blanks are output; if f is of type C or N , leading zeros are replaced by blanks.

Option

… NO-SIGN

Effect

The leading sign is not output if f is of type I , P or F .

Option

… DD/MM/YY

Option

… MM/DD/YY

Effect

If

f is a date field (type D ), the date is output with a 2-character year

as specified in the user’s master record. Both of these formatting

options have the same value.

Option

… DD/MM/YYYY

Option

… MM/DD/YYYY

Effect

If

f is a date field (type D ), the date is output with a 4-character year

as specified in the user’s master record. Both of these formatting

options have the same value.

Option

… DDMMYY

Option

… MMDDYY

Effect

Date formatting like the additions … DD/MM/YY and … MM/DD/YY , but without separators.

Option

… YYMMDD

Effect

If f is a date field (type D ), the date is output in the format YYMMDD (YY = year, MM = month, DD = Day).

Option

… CURRENCY w

Effect

Correct format for currency specified in the field w .

Treats

the contents of f as a currency amount. The currency specified in w

determines how many decimal places this amount should have.

The

contents of w are used as a currency key for the table TCURX ; if there

is no entry for w , the system assumes that the currency amount has 2

decimal places.

Option

… DECIMALS d

Effect

d

specifies the number of decimal places for a number field (type I , P

or F ) in d . If this value is smaller than the number of decimal

places in the number, the number is rounded. If the value is greater,

the number is padded with zeros.

Since accuracy with floating point

arithmetic is up to about 15 decimal places (see ABAP/4 number types ),

up to 17 digits are output with floating point numbers (type F ). (In

some circumstances, 17 digits are needed to differentiate between two

neighboring floating point numbers.) If the output length is not

sufficient, as many decimal places as possible are output. Negative

DECIMALS specifications are treated as DECIMALS 0 .

Example

Effect of different DECIMALS specifications:

DATA: X TYPE P DECIMALS 3 VALUE ‘1.267’,

Y TYPE F VALUE ‘125.456E2’.

WRITE: /X DECIMALS 0, “output: 1

/X DECIMALS 2, “output: 1.27

/X DECIMALS 5, “output: 1.26700

/Y DECIMALS 1, “output: 1.3E+04

/Y DECIMALS 5, “output: 1.25456E+04

/Y DECIMALS 20. “output: 1.25456000000000E+04

Option

… ROUND r

Effect

Scaled output of a field of type P .

The decimal point is first moved r places to the left ( r > 0) or to the right ( r < hour =" '1.230'.">.

ASSIGN ‘First Name’ TO .

WRITE: /3 ‘Name'(001), 15 , 30 ‘RoomNo’, 40 ‘Age'(002).

…

WRITE: / ‘Peterson’ UNDER ‘Name'(001),

‘Ron’ UNDER ,

‘5.1’ UNDER ‘RoomNo’,

(5) 24 UNDER TEXT-002.

This produces the following output (numbers appear right-justified in their output fields!):

Name First Name RoomNo Age

Peterson Ron 5.1 24

Option

… NO-GAP

Effect

Suppresses the blank after the field f . Fields output one after the other are then displayed without gaps.

Example

Output several literals without gaps:

WRITE: ‘A’ NO-GAP, ‘B’ NO-GAP, ‘C’. “Output: ABC

If

NO-GAP was not specified here, the output would have been ” A B C ”

because one blank is always implicitly generated between consecutive

output fields.

Option

… LEFT-JUSTIFIED

… CENTERED

… RIGHT-JUSTIFIED

Effect

Left-justified, centered or right-justified output.

For

number fields (types I , P and F ), RIGHT-JUSTIFIED is the standard

output format, but LEFT-JUSTIFIED is used for all other types, as well

as for templates.

Examples

Output to a list ( WRITE ):

DATA: FIELD(10) VALUE ‘abcde’.

WRITE: / ‘|’ NO-GAP, FIELD LEFT-JUSTIFIED NO-GAP, ‘|’,

/ ‘|’ NO-GAP, FIELD CENTERED NO-GAP, ‘|’,

/ ‘|’ NO-GAP, FIELD RIGHT-JUSTIFIED NO-GAP, ‘|’.

* Output: |abcde |

* | abcde |

* | abcde|

Formatting in a program field ( WRITE…TO… )

DATA: TARGET_FIELD1(10),

TARGET_FIELD2 LIKE TARGET-FIELD1,

TARGET_FIELD3 LIKE TARGET-FIELD1.

WRITE: ‘123’ LEFT-JUSTIFIED TO TARGET-FIELD1,

‘456’ CENTERED TO TARGET-FIELD2,

‘789’ RIGHT-JUSTIFIED TO TARGET-FIELD3.

WRITE: / ‘|’ NO-GAP, TARGET_FIELD1 NO-GAP, ‘|’,

/ ‘|’ NO-GAP, TARGET-FIELD2 NO-GAP, ‘|’,

/ ‘|’ NO-GAP, TARGET_FIELD3 NO-GAP, ‘|’.

* Output: |123 |

* | 456 |

* | 789|

Notes

Specifying several formatting options

You

can use the additions of the first group ( NO-ZERO , NO-SIGN , DD/MM/YY

etc., CURRENCY , DECIMALS , ROUND , EXPONENT ) simultaneously, provided

it makes sense. You can combine the additions UNDER and NO-GAP with all

other additions in any permutation; however, they are not taken into

account until the field f has been formatted according to all the other

options.

Templates, conversion routines and alignment

If you

want to format a field using a special conversion routine , all the

other additions (apart from UNDER and NO-GAP ) are ignored. This also

applies if the conversion routine is not explicitly specified, but

comes from the ABAP/4 Dictionary .

If you want to format a field

using a template , the system first takes into account the options of

the first group, and then places the result in the template. However,

if you specify one of the date-related formatting options ( DD/MM/YY

etc.), the template is ignored.

Finally, the formatted field or the

template is copied to the target field according to the requested

alignment . For type C fields, it is the occupied length that is

relevant, not the defined length; this means that trailing blanks are

not taken into account.

Combined usage of CURRENCY , DECIMALS and ROUND

The rounding factor (from the right) in

WRITE price CURRENCY c ROUND r DECIMALS d

results from the formula

rounding factor = c + r – d .

If DECIMALS is not specified, d = c applies.

You read this formula in the following manner:

The

field price is supposed to be of ABAP/4 type P (or I ); it contains a

currency amount. The CURRENCY specification expresses how many decimal

places price is to have and may differ from the definition of price

(the decimal point is not stored internally, but comes from the type

attributes of price ). Normally, price is output with as many decimal

places as the field has internally according to the type attributes or

the CURRENCY specification. You can override this number of output

decimal places with DECIMALS . The addition ROUND addition moves the

decimal point r places to the left, if r is positive, otherwise to the

right. This means that a $ amount is output with ROUND 3 in the unit

1000 $.

According to the above formula, there can also be a

“negative” rounding factor; then, the corresponding number of zeros is

appended to the amount price on the right using the “rounding factor”.

However, the value of “rounding factor” must be at least equal to -14.

Currency fields and DATA with DECIMALS

If

the field price is normally formatted with decimal places (e.g. fields

for currency amounts), these are treated like a CURRENCY specification

when rounding, if CURRENCY was not expressly specified.

If present, the DECIMALS specification defines how many decimal places are to be output after rounding.

If

the DECIMALS and the (explicit or implicit) CURRENCY specifications are

different, rounding takes place according to the above formula, even if

no ROUND specification was made (i.e. r = 0).

If a field in the DATA statement was declared with DECIMALS n , WRITE treats it like a currency field with n decimal places.

Examples

Sales in pfennigs or lira: 246260

Unit TDM or TLira with 1 decimal place.

DATA SALES TYPE P VALUE 246260.

WRITE SALES CURRENCY ‘DEM’ ROUND 3 DECIMALS 1. ” 2,5 TDM

WRITE SALES CURRENCY ‘ITL’ ROUND 3 DECIMALS 1. ” 246,3 TLira

Sales in pfennigs or lira: 99990

Unit TDM or TLira with 1 decimal place.

SALES = 99990.

WRITE SALES CURRENCY ‘DEM’ ROUND 3 DECIMALS 1. ” 1,0 TDM

WRITE SALES CURRENCY ‘ITL’ ROUND 3 DECIMALS 1. ” 100,0 TLira

Sales in pfennigs or lira: 93860

Unit 100 DM or 100 lira with 2 decimal places:

SALES = 93860.

WRITE SALES CURRENCY ‘DEM’ ROUND 2 DECIMALS 2. ” 9,38 HDM

WRITE SALES CURRENCY ‘ITL’ ROUND 2 DECIMALS 2. ” 938,60 HLira

Sales in pfennigs: 93840

Unit 1 DM without decimal places.

SALES = 93860

WRITE SALES CURRENCY ‘DEM’ DECIMALS 0. ” 938 DM

Sales in pfennigs: 93860

Unit 1 DM without decimal places.

SALES = 93860.

WRITE SALES CURRENCY ‘DEM’ DECIMALS 0. ” 939 DM

Note

Runtime errors

WRITE_CURRENCY_ILLEGAL_TYPE : CURRENCY parameter with WRITE is not type C

WRITE_ROUND_TOO_SMALL : Rounding parameter is less than -14

WRITE_UNIT-ILLEGAL_TYPE : UNIT parameter with WRITE is not type C